Tuesday, November 10, 2009

Taweez (Amulets)

Taweez

The defenition of a ta'wiz is simply, a written du'a from the Qur'an or ahadith, and is for the one who cannot read or has not memorized that particular du'a. It is written on a piece of paper and is worn around the neck.

We, the Ahl as-Sunna, believe that to wear a ta'wiz around the neck is permissible if the du'a' contained in it is written from the Qur'an or ahadith. Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) used to recite du'a' and then blow onto the sick person. The Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) also did this and they wrote the du'a' on a piece of paper and placed it around the neck of a person if they could not read it. Of course, the du'a's from the Qur'an and ahadith have the power to heal the sick. Some people say that if you wear the ta'wiz you are commiting shirk, but we shall prove, with the help of Allah, that it is permissible to wear a ta'wiz.

The Qur'an Has the Power of Healing

Allah Most High says in the Qur'an:

"...We send down in Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers..."

[Sura Banu Isra'il, verse 82]

Qadi Shawkani writes, "If the Qur'an's du'a's are recited and blown on the sick, they will be cured. When the non-believers recite the Qur'an, their blasphemic disease will be cured" [Tafsir Fath al-Qadir, under Sura Bani Isra'il, verse 82]

Proof of Wearing the ta'wiz

Hafiz Ibn Kathir and Qadi Shawkani write:

"Amr ibn Shu'aib (may Allah be pleased with him) said that 'Rasulu'llah(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught my father and grandfather a du'a which we would read before going to sleep, to protect us from fear and anguish.We told our elder children to recite this du'a before going to sleep as well.But for those children who were not yet literate, we would write it and then put it around their necks"

[Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.2; Abu Dawud, in 'Chapter of Medicine'; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, under Sura al-Mu'minun, verse 97; and Qadi Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, under the same verse]

It is Permissible to Read Du'a and Blow Upon the Sick

Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim write:

"When a person who was sick or in some distress they would go to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) who would then place his hand on the area of pain and recite a du'a' and then blow onto him"

[Bukhari; Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

Imam Muslim writes:

"When the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill for the last time, Angel Jibril (peace be upon him) came and recited du'a' and blew on to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)"

[Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

Imam Muslim writes:

" 'A'isha (may Allah be pleased with her) relates that when the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill for the last time, she recited Sura al-Falaq and Sura an-Nas and then blew on to the Prophet's (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) hands. The Prophet then blew this onto his own face and body because his hands had more blessing then 'A'isha's (may Allah be pleased with her)"

[Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

From the above narrations, it proves that to blow after reciting du'a's onto the sick is Sunna and the more pious the person is, the more healing power he has because he is blessed more than the less pious.

Hafiz Ibn Taymiyya writes:

"It is permissible to [to recite du'a's and then] blow upon the sick in Islam, but the words must be from the Qur'an or ahadith. If the words are not, then it is not permissible"

[Ibn Taymiyya, At-Tawassul, Chapter on Blowing onto the Sick]

Questions

Q) Some people ask, 'How is it allowed to blow dua's onto the sick when some ahadith say this is forbidden?'

A) Allama Sa'idi has written the answer to this question in great detail; he has also included the opinion of all the other great scholars, and we will present this here.

Allama Sa'idi writes:

"Imam an-Nawawi in Sharh Muslim states: 'There are two types of ahadith concerning blowing. [reciting a du'a and then blowing onto a person]. One of the types is transmitted in Bukhari: 'There will be people who will enter Paradise without any questioning, who have never been blown upon.' Imam Muslim has also recorded a hadith in support of those who do not ask to be blown upon. Imam Bukhari in the chapter on Tibb [Medicine] has written du'as that our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) recited when doing damm [reciting a du'a and then blowing onto a person]. Imam Muslim states in 'The Chapter on Virtues of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)' that: "When our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill, the Angel Jibril came to him and performed the blowing." The above types of ahadith apparently seem to contradict each other but in reality there is no contradiction.

"The former type of hadith refers to the prohibition of having read something that is not from the Qur'an and Sunna [i.e.something that has pictures, diagrams or words not from the Qur'an or Sunna] and then blow upon someone. The latter types of ahadith which permit damm refer to those kalimat [words or verses] which have been taught by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)"

[Allama Sa'idi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

In the same way as above there are two types of ahadith concerning ta'wiz. There are many narrations that forbid the use of ta'wiz and also many permitting their use.

Imam al-Qurtubi wrote in detail about both types of ahadith concerning ta'wiz:

"The ta'wiz that are forbidden are those ta'wiz from the Time of Ignorance - those which are satanic and contain an element of shirk [mantar, voodoo and magic, etc.]. The ta'wiz, which are permitted are those written with du'as evidently from Qur'an and ahadith only"

[al-Qurtubi, at-Tadhkirat, chapter on 'Ta'wiz']

Here are the narrations which show the permission for one to wear a ta'wiz around one's neck:

Allama Alusi al-Hanafi, in his Tafsir of the Qur'an, writes:

"According to Imam Malik 'It is permitted to put around the neck the ta'wiz written with the name of Allah.' Imam Baqir also stated that it is permitted to put such a ta'wiz around the neck of a child"

[Ruh al-Mani, chapter 15, under Sura al-Mu'minun, verse 97]

Allama Shami al-Hanafi writes:

"It is permitted to write a ta'wiz and put it around the neck... It would be better if a person recites the du'as taught by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). But if a person cannot read or is too young to recite then it is permitted for that person to put it around the neck"

[Rad al-Mukhtar, chapter on 'Qira'at'; Sa'idi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, Chapter on Tibb]

To conclude, it can be said that those verses that oppose the Qur'an, Shari'a, or the Sunna are forbidden to read and also forbidden to put around the neck.But as for the du'as and verses from the Qur'an and Sunna it is permitted to be written and put around the neck of a small child, illiterate or a sick person

Khatm e Nabuwat

Khatme Nabuwat, Finality of the Prophet of Sayyidunah Hazrat Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam)

Risalah or belief in prophethood is one of the seven articles of faith. Prophethood is the channel of communication between God Almighty and humanity, this is the medium through which the human being is able to understand the reason for creation, and realise the will of the creator. Through this medium the humans understand and comprehend the magnitude of benefit in applying the will of the Lord and severity of detriment in neglecting it. As Muslims God has ordained for us to believe in all prophets from Adam to Jesus, culminating in the belief in Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) as the messenger to all mankind regardless of colour, race, tongue or ethnicity. The belief in the Prophethood of The Beloved, The Most Noble Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) is incomplete, deficient and curtailed unless one believes that he is the Final Prophet of God and there is to be no Prophet after him. The slightest denial or defiance of this fundamental is sufficient to cast one out the fold of Islam and throw one into the camp of kufr and apostasy.
This brief article wishes to provide the reader with adequate proof for belief in the finality of the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) and show that He is the final and the last Prophet of Allah and there is to be no new prophet after him.
As this is a matter of aqeedah (dogma), we must begin with highlighting the sources of law, which are acceptable when determining aqeedah qatiya (belief which is certain and necessary in order for one to be classified as a Muslim). Therefore the mutakalimun (dialectics) say that aqeedah can only be formulated from a source that is Qat'i-ul-thabut (definite in text) and Qat'i-ud-dalalah (definite in meaning).
This means that there must be certainty that the source of the belief is from Allah or his Messenger, hence definite in text.
Secondly the source must be unequivocal, unambiguous and explicit in what is being said. An example of this is the belief in tawhid, the oneness of Allah. It is mentioned amongst other places, in Surah Ikhlas, (Say, He is Allah) states in Almuhkam that the words Khatim and Khatamah with regards to everything means its end and its termination.
This verse is an unequivocal statement from the Qur'an, which states that Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) has concluded the line of prophets, and that he is the last and final Prophet of God.
Finality of Prophethood and Coming of Jesus in the Last Days:
A question arises here, we all believe that in the lasy days before doomsday, Jesus Christ Peace be upon him will descend to the World again, lead the Muslim army aggainst the Kuffar and Dajjal, Kill Dajjal the Antichrist and bring all misguidance to an end. The question is, does the reappearance of Jesus Christ, who was a prophet to the Israelites, negate the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam).
This question has been raised and answered by numerous exegesists of the Quran, hence Allamah Zamahshari the great Muttazilite Scholar and a grand lexicon states in his Tafsir Kasshaf: Imam Baydhawi raises the same question and states:
The answer to the above objection in light of the scholars is that the Holy Prophet Muhammad's being the last prophet means that nobody would be appointed as a prophet after him; it does not imply that somebody who was appointed a prophet earlier and prior to the birth of Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) would be dismissed from his prophethood or that such a prophet would not be able to return to this world. It is well known that Christ was appointed a prophet 600 or so years prior to the birth of our noble prophet.
Furthermore when Christ, peace be upon him, does return for the reformation of the Ummah of the Holy Prophet, he will carry out the reform and revival in accordance with the laws and the teachings of the holy Prophet. and would not bring down or implement a new law alien to the Sharia of Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam), as if he is actually an ummati one. Now this is a verse from the Quran, therefore it is certainly from Allah; hence it is definite in text. Also it is unequivocal or uncertainty with regards to the meaning. Now if anyone were to believe in more that one God would automatically step out of the fold of Islam, as this would be denial of a fundamental belief that is proven by a definite text that is definite in meaning. Hence belief of the above mentioned type an only be proven by a clear verse of the Holy Prophet of Islam, (a statement of the Prophet narrated by such a number of companions and narrators through the generations that it would be impossible for them to all agree on a lie). All other types of evidences which do not measure up to the above criteria can however be used in a supportive capacity. Having set the scene, let us now analyse the belief that Prophet Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) is the last prophet of Allah and there is to be no other Prophet after him.
Proof from the Qur'an that our Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) is the final Prophet of Allah:
Surah 33 Verse 40
''Muhammad is not a father of any of your men, but he is a messenger of Allah and the last of the prophets''.
In this verse the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) has been mentioned as Khatam ul Nabiyeen, translated as last of the Prophets. There are two ways to read the word Khatam, Imams Hasan and Asim read the word as Khatam whereas other leading scholars read it as Khatim. The meaning remains the same in both cases, that is the last of the prophets'. In both the cases the word means the last as well as the seal. The meaning of the seal is also the last because the seal is applied to something when it is intended to be closed. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) has been called the seal of the prophets because the process of sending prophets has come to an end on his advent.
All the famous lexicons of the Arabic language have affirmed the fact that the words, Khatim and Khatam carry the same meaning in this sentence. Hence Ibn Sidah or follower of Hazrat Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam). As a final statement on this verse we quote Hafiz Ibn Kathir who states:
' Allah has told us in His Book, and His Messenger has told us in the Mutawatir Sunnah, that there will be no Prophet after him, so that it may be known that everyone who claims this status after him is a liar and fabricator who is misguided and is misguiding others. Even if he twists meanings, comes up with false claims and uses tricks and vagaries, all of this is false and is misguidance as will be clear to those who have understanding. This is what Allah caused to happen in the case of Al-Aswad Al-Ansi in the Yemen and Musaylimah the liar in Al-Yamamah whose false miracles and nonsensical words showed everyone who was possessed of understanding that they were liars who were leading people astray; may the curse of Allah be upon them both. This is the case with every false Prophet until the Day of Resurrection, until they end with Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal (the Antichrist).
Each of these liars is given by Allah signs which show the people of knowledge and the believers that his message is false which is part of the perfect kindness of Allah towards His creation. These liars do not enjoin what is good, nor forbid what is evil, unless they do so by coincidence or because it serves an ulterior purpose. They are the utmost in falsehood and immorality, in all that they say and do, as Allah says: Shall I inform you (O people!) upon whom the Shayatin descend They descend on every lying, sinful person.) (26:221-222) This is in contrast to the Prophets - may blessings and peace be upon them - for they are the utmost in righteousness, truthfulness, wisdom, uprightness and justice in all that they say and do, command and forbid. In addition to this they are supported with miracles and clear and obvious proof. May the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them always, as long as heaven and earth remain. From this verse 40 of surah 33 the entire Ummah has unanimously understood that Prophet Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) is the last Prophet of Allah and there will never be a Prophet after him ever.
Finality of the Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) from Hadith:
The above mentioned statement of Ibn Kathir conveniently brings us to analysing the Finality of Hazrat Muhammad's Finality from the hadith literature. Muslims Scholars have compiled books listing over 200 statements from the Prophet, which unequivocally state that he is the Final Prophet of Allah and there is to be no Prophet after him. We will only mention a few of the ahadith for the benefit of our readers.
The Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) said ' The example of all the Prophets before me and of myself is like a man has built a very strong and well decorated house in one corner wall of which a space has been left vacant for one brick; people roam about in the house to see it and admire the construction but all of them say why did not the builder put a brick in that space also which would have completed the construction. I am that last brick (of the palace of prophethood). In some versions he said 'I have filled up that vacant space and thus completed the palace of Prophethood'. (Narrated By Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmizi From Jabir Bin Abdullah Ansari. Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal and Tirmizi From Ubai Bin Ka'b. Imam Muslim and Ahmad Bin Hanbal from Abu Saeed Khudri).
The gist of this eloquent smile is that prophethood is like a grand palace composed of Prophets. This grand palace was complete in all respects before the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) except for the placement of one brick. The Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) completed this grand palace by filling up the vacant space for one brick. Now there is no more space for any Prophet or Messenger in the palace of Prophethood. Any additional brick to a magnificently constructed buliding would be considered an eyesore just as one brick less would be considered a matter of surprise.
Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal recorded that Anas Bin Malik said that the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) said: 'Messengership and Prophethood have come to an end, and there will be no More Messengers or Prophets. This worried the people, then he said: But there will be Al-Mubashshirat. They said, 'O Messenger of Allah, whar are Al-Mubashshirat' He said, the dreams of a Muslim man, and they are one of the parts of Prophethood'. Tirmizi also records this Hadith.
Abu Hurairah said that the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) said: 'I have been given preference over the other Prophets in six ways: I have been given the ability to speak concisely; I have been aided by fear (cast into the hearts of my enemies); the spoils of war have been made permissible for me; the entire earth has been made a Masjid and a means of purification for me; I have been sent to all of mankind; and the Prophets end with me'. This was recorded by Musim, Tirmizi and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmizi said, 'It is Hasan Sahih'.
Jubayr Bin Mut'im, may Allah be pleased with him, said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: I have several names: I am Muhammad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam), and I am Ahmad (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam), I am Al-Mahi (the eradicator) through whom Allah will erase disbelief; I am Al-Hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet mankind will gather; and I am Al-Aqib (the final one) after whom there will be no Prophet. Narrated By Bukhari and Muslim.
The above mentioned statements of the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) have shown beyond certainty that He (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) is the Final Prophet of Allah and there is to be no Prophet after him. Therefore belief in any new Prophet after the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) would amount to apostasy. In fact The Prophet himself has foretold us that there will false claimants to prophethood after him and we, as Muslims must reject every single one of them. Hence the Holy Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) stated: Thawban said that the Holy Prophet said, 'In my ummah there shall be 30 liars, each will claim prophethood, and I am the Final Prophet, there is no Prophet after me'. Narrated by Ibn Mardwaih. It does not therefore surprise us that every now and then a liar rises and claims prophethood in some shape or form, for it has been foretold by one who has been given the knowledge of ma kaan wa ma yakoon (Knowledge of what is and what is to be) by his Lord Almighty, one who has never uttered a lie nor gone astray (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam).
The Muslim Community has overwhelmingly rejected every such claim of prophethood after our noble Prophet, for such a claim, or belief in it, is contrary to the fundamental Islamic belief that our noble Prophet is the last Prophet of Allah, as has been shown by the clearest evidence. We have and always will consider such claimant to be apostates, outside the fold of Islam, for they deny that which is proven by the most definite, clear and explict method, There is no ambiguity uncertainty with regards to the authenticity and necessity of this belief, hence there no hesitation in pronouncing one who rejects it in any form or shape, a Kaafir. In order to ensure conciseness we have left out numerous verses and ahadith of the Noble Prophet (Sallaho Alahi Wasallam) on this subject, at the same time we have not used other sources of evidence such as Ijma (consensus), analogical reasoning and statements of great scholars on this subject. May Allah make this effort as source of guidance for All. Aameen Bijahi Habibihil Kareem.

Al-'Aqidah At-Tahawiyah

Al-'Aqidah At-Tahawiyah
By Abu Ja'far At-Tahawi Al-Misri

Introduction

In The Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

'Imam Tahawi's al-'Aqidah, representative of the viewpoint of Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jamaa'at, has long been the most widely acclaimed, and indeed indispensable, reference work on Muslim beliefs, of which this is an edited English translation.

Imam Abu Ja'far Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Salamah bin Salmah bin `Abd al Malik bin Salmah bin Sulaim bin Sulaiman bin Jawab Azdi, popularly known as Imam Tahawi, after his birth-place in Egypt, is among the most outstanding authorities of the Islamic world on Hadith and fiqh (jurisprudence). He lived 239-321 A.H., an epoch when both the direct and indirect disciples of the four Imams: Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Ash-Shafi'i and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal - were teaching and practicing. This period was the zenith of Hadith and fiqh studies, and Imam Tahawi studied with all the living authorities of the day. He began as a student of his maternal uncle, Isma'il bin Yahya Muzni. a leading disciple of Imam Shafi'i. Instinctively, however, Imam Tahawi felt drawn to the corpus of Imam Abu Hanifah's works. Indeed, he had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of Hanafi scholars to resolve thorny issues of Fiqh, drawing heavily on the writings of Imam Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani and Imam Abu Yusuf, who had codified Hanafi fiqh. This led Imam Tahawi to devote his whole attention to studying the Hanafi works and he eventually joined the Hanafi school.

Imam Tahawi stands out not only as a prominent follower of the Hanafi school but, in view or his vast erudition and remarkable powers of assimilation, as one of its leading scholars. His monumental scholarly works, such as Sharh Ma'ani al-Athar and Mushkil al-Athar, are encyclopaedic in scope and have long been regarded as indispensable for training students of fiqh.

Al-'Aqidah though small in size, is a basic text for all times, listing what a Muslim must know and believe and inwardly comprehend.

There is consensus among the Companions, Successors and all the leading Islamic authorities such as Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal on the doctrines enumerated in this work. For these doctrines shared by Ahl As-Sunnah Wal-Jamaa'at owe their origin to the Holy Quran and consistent and confirmed Ahadith - the undisputed primary sources of Islam.

Being a text on the Islamic doctrines, this work draws heavily on the arguments set forth in the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah. Likewise, the arguments advanced in refuting the views of sects that have deviated from the Sunnah, are also taken from the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah.

As regards the sects mentioned in this work, a study of Islamic history up to the time of Imam Tahawi would be quite helpful. References to sects such as Mu'tazilah, Jahmiyyah, Qadriyah, and Jabriyah are found in the work. Moreover, it contains allusions to the unorthodox and deviant views of the Shi'ah, Khawarij and such mystics as had departed from the right path. There is an explicit reference in the work to the nonsensical controversy on Khalq-al -Qu'ran in the times of Ma'mun and some other `Abbasid Caliphs.

While the permanent relevance of the statements of belief in al-'Aqidah is obvious, the historical weight and point of certain of these statements can be properly appreciated only if the work is used as a text for study under the guidance of some learned person able to elucidate its arguments fully, with reference to the intellectual and historical background of the sects refuted in the work. Such study helps one to better understand the Islamic doctrines and avoid the deviations of the past or the present.

May Allah grant us a true undersanding of faith and include us with those to whom Allah refers as

'those who believe, fear Allah and do good deeds'; and `he who fears Allah, endures affliction, then Allah will not waste the reward of well-doers.'

-Iqbal Ahmad A'zami

Allah Exists Without a Place

Imam al-Hafidh al-Bayhaqi said in his book, Al-Asma'u was-Sifat, on page 400 [Kawthari edition]:



والذي روي في اّخر هذا الحديث إشارة إلى نفي المكان عن الله تعالى، وأن العبد أينما كان فهو في القرب والبعد من الله تعالى سواء، وأنه الظاهر فيصح إدراكه بالأدلة، الباطن فلا يصح إدراكه بالكون في مكان. واستدل بعض أصحابنا في نفي المكان عنه بقول النبي صلّى الله عليه و سلّم أنت الظاهر فليس فوقك شىء، وأنت الباطن فليس دونك شىء، وإذا لم يكن فوقه شىء ولا دونه شىء لم يكن في مكان



".... What was mentioned towards the end of the hadith is an indication of denying Allah has a place and denying the slave is alike to Allah, wherever he was, in proximity or remoteness. Allah, the Exalted, is adh-Dhahir--hence, it is valid to know about Him by proofs. Allah is al-Batin--hence, it is invalid that He would be in a place."

He also said:

"Some of our companions used as a proof to refute the place to Allah the saying of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam : 'You are adh-Dhahir and there is nothing above You, and You are al-Batin and there is nothing underneath You.' Therefore, if there is nothing above Him and nothing underneath Him, He is not in a place."



Similarly, regarding this same hadith [from Sahih Muslim]:


O Allah, You are the first: there is nothing before You; and You are the last: there is nothing after You. You are the Manifest (al-Zahir): there is nothing above You. You are the Hidden (al-Batin): there is nothing below You.



Al-Raghib al-Isfahani (d. 425 hegira) in his Mufradat al-Qur`an explained that Allah is the Manifest because His existence is intuitively evident to us through everything we see in the creation, while He is the Hidden because we can not comprehend the nature of His existence.

Mufradat al-Qur`an, (Damascus, Dar al-Qalam; and Beirut, Dar al Shamiyyah, 1992), p.131.



Imam Zayn ul-Abidin said:

وروى الحافظ اللغوي محمد مرتضى الزَّبيديُّ في شرح الإحياء بالإسناد المتصل أن الإمام عليًّا زين العابدين كان يقول: "سبحانك لا يحويك مكان" اهـ، وزين العابدين كان أفضل أهل البيت في زمانه

“glory be to you who has no place”

[documented in Imam Murtada Zabidis’s sharh al ihya ulum ud deen, with a mutasil isnad]





In Al-Farq Bayn al-Firaq under the chapter heading:


في بيان الاصول التى اجتمعت عليها اهل السنة



Imam Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi says:


واجمعوا على انه لا يحويه مكان ولا يجرى عليه زمان خلاف قول من زعم من الشهامية والكرامية انه مماس لعرشه وقد قال امير المؤمنين على رضي الله عنه ان الله تعالى خلق العرش اظهارا لقدرته لا مكانا لذاته وقال ايضا قد كان ولا مكان وهو الآن على ما كان



rough translation:

"Allah created al-'arsh as an indication of His Power and did not take it as a place for Himself. Allah existed eternally without a place, and He now is as He ever was" [i.e. without a place]




Imam Ali [RA] is reported to have said:

تفسير مدارك التنزيل وحقائق التأويل/ النسفي
قول علي رضي الله عنه: الاستواء غير مجهول والتكييف غير معقول والإيمان به واجب والسؤال عنه بدعة لأنه تعالى كان ولا مكان فهو على ما كان قبل خلق المكان لم يتغير عما كان.


[rough translation]

“al-Istiwa is not unknown, and the modality is altogether inconceivable. To affirm it is obligatory and to ask questions about it is an innovation, this is because Allah was, when there was nothing, and He created place before there was a place, and He is in no need for a place”.

[Reported in Tafsir Madaarik al-Tanzeel wa Haqaa’iq al-Ta’weel by an-Nasafi, under surah Taha (20) ayat (5)]


قال الإمام علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه :-" من زعم أن إلهنا محدود فقد جهل الخالق المعبود" ا.هـ رواه أبو نعيم في حلية الأولياء



Ali bin Abi Talib RA is also attributed by Hafidh Abu Nu'aym in his Hilyatul Awliya as saying:

[rough translation]

"He who a claims that our Lord is limited is ignorant about the Creator who is worshipped."



Imam Ash-Shaafi'i stated,

" إنه تعالى كان ولا مكان فخلق المكان وهو على صفة الأزلية كما كان قبل خلقه المكان لا يجوز عليه التغيير في ذاته ولا التبديل في صفاته " اهـ. [إتحاف السادة المتقين (2/ 24 ]


"Verily, He the exalted was, without makaan (station or place). He created Makaan and He was upon His attribute of eternality just as He was before he created makaan. It is not permitted upon Him to change his essence or to change in His attributes."

[It-Haaf As-Saadah Al Muttaqeen 2/24]

Imaam Ibn Hibbaan in his Thiqaat says,

"الحمد لله الذي ليس له حد محدود فيحتوى، ولا له أجل معدود فيفنى، ولا يحيط به جوامع المكان ولا يشتمل عليه تواتر الزمان". الثقات (1/ 1)


He also stated in his Saheeh,

"كان- الله- ولا زمان ولا مكان"

"Allah was - without time and without makaan (station)."

وقال الشيخ الإمام أبو منصور عبد القاهر بن طاهر التميمي البغدادي الإسفراييني (429 هـ) ما نصه : "وأجمعوا- أي أهل السنة- على أنه- أي الله- لا يحويه مكان ولا يجري عليه زمان " اهـ.

Ash-Shaykh Al Imaam Abu Mansur Abdul Qaahir ibn Taahir At-Tameemi Al Baghdaadi Al-Isfaraa-ini (died 429 AH) said, "They have consensus - meaning Ahlus Sunnah - upon the fact that Allah is not contained in a place (makaan) and time does not run upon him."

الفرق بين الفرق (ص/ 333)




وقال أبو محمد علي بن أحمد المعروف بابن حزم الأندلسي (456 هـ) : " وأنه تعالى لا في مكان ولا في زمان، بل هو تعالى خالق الأزمنة والأمكنة، قال تعالى: (وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيراً)(سورة الفرقان/2)، وقال (خلقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا)(سورة الفرقان/59)، والزمان والمكان هما مخلوقان، قد كان تعالى دونهما، والمكان إنما هو للاجسام"


Ibn Hazm Al Andalusi said, "And He ta'alaa is not in a place and is not in time..."


[كتابه علم الكلام: مسألة في نفي المكان عن الله تعالى (ص/ 65)]



Al Qaadhi Ash-Shaykh Abul Waleed Muhammad ibn Ahmad Qaadhi Al Jama'ah in Qurtubah (cordoba), well known as Ibn Rushd Al Jadd (the grandfather - this is not the author of Bidaayatul Mujtahid - it is his grandfather) Al Maaliki stated,

"ليس- الله- في مكان، فقد كان قبل أن يخلق المكان

"Allah is not in a place. He is as he was before he created 'place'. "

[This is mentioned by Ibn Al Haaj Al Maaliki in his Madkhal.]



قال ابن حزم (وهو ممن يتكلم باسم السلف) قول تعالى يجب حمله على ظاهره ما لم يمنع من حمله على
ظاهره نصّ آخر أو إجماع أو ضرورة حس, وقد علمنا أن كل ما كان في مكان, فإنه شاغل لذلك المكان
ومالئ له ومتشكل بشلكه, ولا بدّ من أحد الأمرين ضرورة, وعلمنا أن ما كان في مكان فإنه متناه بتناهي
مكانه وهو ذو جهات ست أو خمس متناهية في مكانه وهذه صفات الجسم اه ثم قال:إن الأمة أجمعت على
أنه لا يدعو أحد فيقول يا مستو ارحمني, ولا يسمى ابنه عبد المستوي اه ثم قال إن معنى قوله تعالى على
العرش استوى أنه فعل فعله في العرش وهو انتهاء خلقه إليه, فليس بعد العرش شيء, والعرش نهاية جرم
المخلوقات الذي ليس خلفه خلاء ولا ملاء, ومن أنكر أن يكون للعالم نهاية من المساحة والزمان والمكان
لحق بقول الدهرية, وفارق الإسلام اه ثم ردّ على القائلين بالمكان وختم كلامه بقوله فإنه لا يكون في
مكان إلا ما كان جسما أو عرضا في جسم, هذا الذي لا يجوز سواه, ولا يتشكل في العقل والوهن غيره
ألبتة, وإذا انتهى أن يكون الله عز وجل جسما أو عرضا, فقد انتهى أن يكون في مكان أصلا وبالله نتأيد اه
فليعتبر بقول ابن حزم هذا أدعياء السلف من مشبّهة العصر. 3



Imam al-Kawthari RH says regarding Imam Ibn Hazm RH:

Ibn Hazm (who was a person wont to speak in the name of the salaf) said:

“One is required to take Allah’s word, exalted is He, literally as long as there is no text, or consensus, or empirical necessity, stops us from doing that. We know that everything that is in a place occupies that space and fills it and assumes its shape. One of the two things has to be. We know that whatever is in a place has to be limited by the limits of that place, as it has to be in limited by a finite limit in the six or five directions in its space, and these are the attributes of bodies.”

Then he said: “The ummah is agreed that no one should say ‘O, He who has ascended, have mercy on me’! just as no one should name his son ‘Slave of the One Who Ascended.’”

Then he said: “Truly, the meaning of His saying, exalted is He, ‘He made istiwà on the Throne’ is that He acted in some way on the Throne; namely, He ended His creation with it, for there is nothing after the Throne which is the end of creation; there is nothing after it, neither space, nor void. Anybody who denies that the creation has a finite limit in distance and time and space joins the materialists and leaves Islam.”

Then he refuted those who insist that Allah occupies space and he ended his discourse saying: “Nothing can be in space except what is a body or an accident [what occurs in a substance like heat, color and so on] in a body; there is no other possibility, for neither reason nor imagination can conceive of another possibility at all. Since it is concluded that Allah is neither a body nor an accident, it is concluded that He cannot occupy space absolutely. And Allah is our help.”

So let those claim to follow the salaf in our times likening Allah to His creatures consider carefully this proclamation of Ibn Hazm.


Reference:

الأسماء والصفات, ص 516 , تعليق رقم ( 1

Knowledge of the five things

Tabsheer al-Aquul Wa Tanbeeh al-Ghafuul Fee SharHi Wus`ati `Ilmi Rasuul

Shaykh Na`yeemuddin muradabadi [ Rh]

Bismillahir RaHmaanir RaHeem

As Salaatu Was Salaamu `Ala Sayyidina MuHammad Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam

Hamdan Liman Ja`ala Kalimatal Kaafireena wal Mubtadi`yeena Hiyas Suflaa Wa Kalimatullahi Hiyal `Ulyaa; Wa Ayyadash Sharee`atil MuHammadiyyati bi Aqlaamil `Ulamaail A`alaam; Wa USalli wa Usallimu `Ala Rasuulihil A`aDham Wa Nabiyyihil Akram alladhee A`aTaahu Rabbuhu Mawlaahu `Ilmul Kaayinaat Maa Huwa Kaayinun Aw Sa-Yakuun.

Amma Ba`ad:

Wa Kulla Sagheerinw Wa Kabeerinm MustaTar

[And all things, be it small or big are written (on the LawH al-MaHfuuDH)]

Fee LawHinm MaHfuuDH

[In the preserved Tablet.]

It is well known that the description of all things is written in the preserved Tablet the LawH al-MaHfuuDH. It should also be known that it is Makhluuq, creation and neither your Lord Almighty, nor any Attribute of His. The first thing from this we note is that knowledge of these five things is not a Shara`yee impossibility. Says QaDi `IyaD RaHimahullah in his Shifaa that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam has the MOST `Ilm in the entire creation. And since LawH and Qalam are also creation definitely Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam has all the `Ilm that is contained therein.

Writes Shaykh Busayri in Qasidat al-Burda :


Wa Inna Min Juudikad Dunyaa Wa DDarratahaa

Wa Min `Uluumika `Ilmal LawHi Wal Qalami

Wa Kulluhum Min Rasulallahi Multamisun
Ghurfanm Minal BaHri Aw Rashfanm Minad Diyami!

[And be it this world or the hereafter, it is because of thy generosity Yaa Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayka wa Sallam // And among thy knowledge is the knowledge of the LawH and the Qalam// And everyone asks of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam // (and all that they have) amounts to not more than a handful of water from the sea or a few drops from torrential rain.]

It is a strange sight to see. Instead of those who do not believe in the Rasul Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam it is those who claim to be his followers who are trying to diminish the high ranks of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam.

I say, if it is a mistake to elevate the rank of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam and for the sake of argument it can’t be proved satisfactorily it is a million times better than doing a mistake in which one stands to downgrade the high grades of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam.

Let me again clear the position of the Ahlus Sunnah. We believe that the knowledge of Unseen is divided as Kull (complete) and Ba`aD (some). Kull is only for Allah `Azza Wa Jall. But Ba`aD is given to Prophets and Awlia. The Ba`aD of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam is so much that it covers from the beginning of the Khalq (creation) to the time of Judgement day. And we do not claim anything other than this. There is an Ikhtilaaf (difference of opinion) whether the five (`Uluum al-Khamsa) are included in the Ba`aD or not. That is what I am presenting below. An important thing to note is Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam has the most `Ilm in the entire creation and his `Ilm howsoever vast is yet little when compared to Allah.

In Radd al-MuHtaar by Ibn `Aabideen Shaamee:

It is written in SharH at TaHreer by HaDrat Shams al-Aimma Kardari that by mentioning something special it doesn’t prove that that which is left out does not hold true.

[Fee SharHit TaHreer, `An Shamsil Aimmah al-Kardari Anna TakhSeeS ash-Shayya Bidhdhikri Laa Yadullu Nafiyal Hukma `Amma `Addahu.]

So, all the Hadeeths that say that Allah alone knows the Ghayb do not negate that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam or other Prophets or Angels or Awlia `Alayhimus Salaam do not know of the Ghayb even after being taught by Allah. As to the explicit negation by Umm al-Mumineen Sayyidatuna `Ayisha RaDiyallahu `Anhaa it means, nobody knows all by himself. Moreover, HaDrat `Ayisha RaDiyallahu `Anhaa has also denied that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam saw Allah with his own eyes; it should be noted that it is her opinion and ijtihaad, not a Marfuu`u Hadeeth as it is with HaDrat Ibn `Abbas RaDiyallahu `Anha in the mas-ala of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam seeing Allah `Azza Wa Jall. Imam AHmed Ibn Hanbal, such a great Imam of Hadeeth when asked "Did Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam see his Lord with his eyes" said "Ra-aa, Ra-aa, Ra-aa…Yes, he saw, he saw, he saw" so much so that he was out of breath! I ask, can this be construed as an opposition to Sayyidah `Aayisha RaDiyallahu `Anhaa?

The entire discussion on `Ilm al-Ghayb is lengthy. But since our friend here, is asking for an answer on only the ‘five’ the Khamsa let us confine ourselves to prove that. I consider that our friend here believes that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam knows of all things except the Khamsa:

`Aalimul Ghaybi Falaa YuDH-hiru `Ala Ghaybihi AHadan Illa ManirtaDa Minar Rasuul

[He (Allah) is the Knower of all hidden things and He doesn’t shew among the unseen to anyone except those among His Messenger whom He wills.]

It is in RuH al Bayan: Said Ibn ash-Shaykh that Allah Ta`aalaa does not let know of the Unseen that he hath (mentioned) special, except those among the Messengers whom He wills (to let know) and that which is not (mentioned) special even a non-prophet does is also taught (by Allah)


[ "Qaala Ibnush Shayki Annahu Ta`alah Laa YaTTali`u `Alal Ghaybilladhee YakhtaSSu bihi `Ilmuhu Illal MurtaDaa Alladhee Yakuunu Rasuulan Wa Maa Laa YakhtaSSu bihi YaTTali`u `Alayhi Ghayrar Rasuul"]

Wa Maa Huwa `Alal Ghaybi BiDaneen

And He (Your Prophet) is not stingy in telling you of the Ghayb, the unseen.

Hadeeth of Bukhari:


Said HaDrat `Umar that one day Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam stood amongst us on a (high) spot and told us (gave news of) of (everything) since the beginning of creation to (the extent of) the time when the people of Paradise enter paradise and the people of Hell enter Hell; He who (could) memorize it (remember) memorized and he who (couldn’t) forgot.

[`An `Umar Qaal Qaama Feena Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Maqaaman Fa Akhbarnaa `An Bad-il Khalqi Hatta Dakhala Ahlul Jannati Manaazilahum Wa Ahlun Naari Manaazilahum HafiDHa dhaalika Man HafiDHahuu Wa Nasiyahuu Man Nasiyahuu.]

Hadeeth of Muslim:

Said `Amr ibn AkhTab al-AnSaari: Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam did his Fajr Salaah one day and rose upon the pulpit and gave us a sermon until the DHuhr time arrived; He got down and did his DHuhr Salaah and rose upon the pulpit (again) and gave us a sermon until the `Asr time arrived; He got down and did his `ASr Salaah and rose upon the pulpit and gave us a sermon until the sun set. So, (therein) he told us of (gave us the news) all things that would happen till judgement day. Said (the reporter) the most knowledgeable amongst us is he who remembers the most.

[`An `Amr ibnil AkhTabil AnSaari Qaala Salla Binaa Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Yawman al-Fajra wa SSa`yida `Alal Minbari Fa KhaTabnaa Hatta HaDaratiDH DHuhru Fa Nazala FaSallaa Thumma SSa`yidal Minbara Fa KhaTabna Fa KhaTabnaa Hatta HaDaratil `Asru Thumma Nazala FaSallaa Thumma SSa`yidal Minbara Hatta Gharabatish Shamsu Fa Akhbarnaa Bimaa Huwa Kaayinun Ilaa Yaumil Qiyaamati Qaala Fa-A`alamunaa AHfaDHunaa]


In the Hadeeth of both Muslim and Bukhari:

It is reported from HaDrat Hudhayfaa, said he: " One day Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam stood amongst us in a (high?) spot. And he did not leave out a thing that would happen till the ordained Hour of the Judgement day, (but he told us from that spot); He who could remember (as much) remembered and he who couldn’t, forgot. Among my companions (those who heard him that day) are those who recognize (the event) when it happens tho’ they seem to have forgotten; it is like a man’s face is forgotten once he is out of sight and when one sees him he recognizes him.


[`An Hudhayfaa Qaal Qaama Feenaa Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Maqaaman Maa Taraka Shayyan Yakuunu Fee Maqaamihi dhaalika Ilaa Qiyaamis Saaati Illa Haddatha Bihi HafiDHahuu Man HafiDHahuu Wa Nasiyahuu Man Nasiyahuu Qad `Alimahuu ASHaabi Haa-ulaayi Annahu La Yakuunu Minhush Shayyun Qad Nasiyahuu Fa Araahu Fadhakarahuu Kamaa Yadhkurur Rajulu Wajhur Rajuli Idhaa Ghaaba Anhu Thumma idhaa Araahu Arafahuu]

In Mishkaat :

It is reported from HaDrat Thawbaan RaDiyallahu `Anhu said he: Said Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Allah `Azza Wa Jall has lighted up the earth for me so that I saw all its easts and all its wests. (this hadeeth is long)


[`An Thawbaan RaDiyallahu `Anhu Qaala Qaala Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Innallaha Zawwaa Liyal ArDa Fa Ra-aytu Mashaariqahaa Wa Maghaaribahaa …. ]


In Mishkaat from Darimi:


It is reported from HaDrat `Abd ar-RaHmaan ibn `Aayish said he: Said Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam I saw my Lord Sustainer `Azza Wa Jall in a pleasant manner; And He (My Lord) kept His Hand (as befits His Glory) between my shoulders and I could feel the coolness in my breast. Then (because of it) I came to know of all that is in the Heavens and all that is in the Earth and recited : " And it is this way we Shewed Ibraaheem of the Kingdom of the Heavens so that it could increase his faith. [note however that since HaDrat Ibraaheem `Alayhis Salaam was a believer already the mention Minal Muuqineen is increase his faith, Wallahu A`alam]

[`An `Abd ar-RaHmaan ibni `Aayish Qaala Qaala Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Ra-aytu Rabbee `Azza Wa Jall Fee AHsani SSuuratin Qaala Feema YakhtaSimul Mala-ul A`alaa Qultu Anta A`alamu Qaala Fa WaDa`a Kaffahuu Bayna Katifiyya Fa Wajadttu Bardahaa Bayna Thadliyya Fa `Alimtu Maa Fis Samaawaati Wal ArDi Wa Tala-a " Wa Kadhaalika Nuree Ibraaheema Malakuutas Samaawaati Wal ArDi Wa Li Yakuuna Minal Muuqineen" ]



In Mishkaat a Hadeeth with the same words except the words

" Wajadttu Barda Anaamilhaa Bayna Thadayya Fatajalla Lee Kullu Shayyin"

[I could find its coolness in my breast and everything was lighted up for me (so that I could know of everything)]


In Mawaahib al Ladunniyyah by Imam AHmed Qastalaani this Hadeeth is reported from Tabaraani who reports from Ibn `Umar RaDiyallahu `Anhu Said he : Said Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Verily Allah `Azza Wa Jall raised the world for me so that I could see all that was therein and all that is going to happen till Judgement day and I could see it (as clearly and plainly) as I could see my hand.

[" Qaala Qaala Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Innallaha Ta`aalaa Qad Rafa`a Liyad Dunyaa Fa Ana AnDHuru Ilayhaa Wa Ilaa Maa Huwa Kaayinun Feehaa Ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati Ka annamaa Ana AnDHuru Ilaa Kaffee Hadhaa"]

Says Imam Zarqaani in SharaH of this Hadeeth:

It points towards the subtle knowledge that he saw it, that is he was given its knowledge.

[ Innallahaa Qad Rafa`a Ayyi ADH-hara wa Kashafa Liyad Dunyaa Bi Haythu AhaTTu Bi Jamee`yi Maa Feehaa Fa Ana AnDHuru Ilayhaa Wa Ilaa Maa Huwa Kaayinun Feehaa Ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati Ka Annama AnDHuru Ilaa Kaffee Haadhihi Ishaaratun Ilaa Annahu NaDHara Haqeeqatan Dafa`a Bihi Annahu Ureeda Bin NaDHaril `Ilm.]

Tabarani, Imam AHmed in his Musnad reports, said HaDrat Abu Dharr al-Ghifaari :


Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam left us in a state such that there wasn’t a bird that would ruffle its feathers but Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam hadn’t told us of it. (that is he has told us so much that he didn’t leave out even such a small thing)

Laqad Taraknaa Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Wa Maa YuHarriku TTaayirun JanaaHayhi Illaa Dhakara Lanaa Minhu `Ilmaa]


Umdatul Qari SharaH Bukhaari by HaDrat `Aini on the mentioned above :


In it is the proof that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam made it known of all things that pertain to the creation from the beginning (genesis) to the end (the day of Judgement) in a single sitting and the doing so in a single sitting points towards a great circumstance which is among miracles and this demonstrates that he was given the miracle of Jawaami`y al Kalim (He who has given the gift of subtle, concise and comprehensive speech) Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam.


["Feehi Dalaalatun `Ala Annahu Akhbara Fil Majlisil WaaHidi Bijamee`yi AHwaalil Makhluuqaati Min Ibtidaa-yihaa Ilaa Intihaa-yihaa Wa Fee Eeraadi dhalika Kulluhu Fee Majlisin WaaHidin Amrun `ADHeemun Min Khawaariqil `Aadati Kayfa Wa Qad U`uTee Ma`a Dhaalika Jawaami`yul Kalim Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam"]

In the explanation of the Hadeeth in number says Mullah `Ali al-Qaari RaHimahullah in Mirqaat:


‘So I came to know’ that is by means of the blessings bestowed upon me, all that is in the Heavens and in the earth that is as all that Allah hath taught/informed from amongst the angels and the trees and other things. Which points/proves towards the vastness of his (Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) knowledge which Allah `Azza Wa Jall opened/informed him of. Said ibn Hajar that is the knowledge of all the Universe and all that is in the heavens and beyond as is evident from the event of Mi`yraaj and the earth, that is all the seven earths and below it whether a bull or a fish on it/in it.

[Fa`Alimtu Ayyi Bisababi WuSuuli dhaalikal FayDi Maa Fis Samaawaati Wal ArDi Ya`ani Maa A`alamahullahu Ta`aalaa Mimma Feehaa Minal Malaayikati Wal Ashjaari Wa Ghayrihimaa `Ibaaratun `An Sa`ati `Ilmihilladhee FataHallahu bihi `Alayhi Wa Qaalabnu Hajar Ayyi Jameeyal Kaayinaatillatee fis Samaawaati Bal Maa Fawqahaa Kamaa Yustafaadu Min QiSSatil Mi`yraaji Wal ArDu Hiya Bi Ma`anaa al-Jinsi Ayyi Wa Jamee`ya Maa Fee ArDeenas Sab`yi Bal wa Maa TaHtahaa Kamaa Afaadahuu Ikhbaaruhuu `Alayhis Salaamu Minath Thawri wal Huutil ladhee `Alayhaa]


Said Jalaluddin as-SuyuuTi in RawDun NaDHeer SharaH Jaami`y as-Sagheer under the Hadeeth:


Khamsun Laa Ya`alamuhunna Illallah:

[There are five nobody knows except Allah.]

And his (Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) saying that nobody knows means that he nobody knows of his own accord; of his own self except Allah. But it should be known that by His own bestowing others also attain this knowledge as is evident amongst us that many have given news of death and that which is in the womb etc.,


[Fa Amma Qawluhuu Laa Ya`alamuhaa Illa Huwa Fa Mufassirun Bi Annahu Laa Ya`alamuhaa Ahadun Bidhaatihee Wa Min Dhaatihee Illa Huu; Laakin Qad Ya`alamu Bi I`ylaamillahi Ta`alaa Fa Inna thumma Man Ya`alamahumaa Wa Qad Wajadnaa Dhaalika Bi Ghayri WaaHidin Kamaa Ra-aynaa Jamaa`atan `Alimuu Mataa Yamuutuuna Wa `Alimuu Maa Fil ArHaami HHaala Hamlil Mar-ati Wa Qaabeelahu]


In Tafseer al-AHmadi:


And be it known, you may say that the knowledge of these five are not known by anyone except Allah `Azza Wa Jall (as is the Nass); But, Allah teaches it to whosoever he wishes among his beloved ones and among the Awliaa as His saying : Allah is the Knower of all things and Khabeer meaning he who gives/teaches news, knowledge.


[Wa Laka An Taquula Anna `Ilma Haadhihil Khamsata Wa In Kaana Laa Ya`alamuhaa AHadun Illallaha Laakin Yajuuzu An Yu`allimuhaa Man Yashaa-u Min MuHibbeehi Wa Awliyaa-ihi Bi Qareenati Qawlihee Ta`alaa Innallaha `Aleemun Khabeer Bi Ma`anaa Al-Mukhbir]

In Jam`un Nihaaya Fee Bad-il Khayri Wal Ghaaya, says Imam Shanwani:

Nobody knows when the hour (of Judgement) is except Allah; So, no one knows of it, whether among the prominent Angels or a Prophet who is sent forth; Some Mufassirs have said that nobody knows of these five all by himself (Ladunniyyan, Dhaatiyyan) without any means except Allah `Azza Wa Jall; for the Knowledge of these things to be known all by himself is His attribute; And the knowledge of these things by a means, then it is not restricted to Allah (for He teaches Himself);

[Laa Ya`alamu Mataa Taquumus Saa`ata Illallaha Falaa Ya`alamu dhaalika Malakun Muqarrabun Wa Laa Nabiyyun Mursalun Qaala Ba`aDul Mufassireena Laa Ya`alama Haadhihil Khamsa `Ilman Ladunniyyan Dhaatiyyan Bilaa WaaSiTatin Illallaha Fal `Ilmu Bi HaadhihiS Sifati Mimma IkhtaSSallahu Ta`aalaa Bihaa; Wa Amma Bi WaaSiTatin Falaa YakhtaSSu bihee Ta`aalaa]


Mirqaat SharH of Mishkaat by Mullah `Ali al-Qaari RaHimahullahul Baari explaining the Hadeeth :


"Inni La A`arifu Asmaa-ahum Wa Asmaa-a Aabaayihim Wa Alwaana Khuyuulihim"

[Verily I know of all their names and their father’s names and the colors of their horses. (this Hadeeth is about the people who cast fitna like the Deobandis)] says,

That is among the miracles of the Prophet `Alayhis Salaam which is document that the Knowledge of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam is MuHeeT (that which covers) all among the complete (things of creation) and parts (minute things) of the Universe and all apart from it.
[Note however that it is complete knowledge of creation that is claimed; not the complete knowledge of the
Unseen. If somebody, construes that what else is left among the knowledge other than that of creation; necessarily he is a great ignoramus for he is restricting the `Ilm of Allah.]


[Feehi Ma`a Kawnihi Minal Mu`ujizaati Dalaalatun `Alaa Anna `Ilmuhu Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam MuHeeTun Bil Kulliyyaati Wal Juz-yiyyati Minal Kaa-inaati Waghayrahaa]

Khalaqal Insaana `Allamahul Bayaan

And Allah created the Human (MuHammad Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam ) and taught him speech (of all that happened and all that is to happen)

Said Imam Baghawi in Mu`aalimut Tanzeel:

وقال ابن كيسان: { خَلَقَ ٱلإِنسَـٰنَ } يعني: محمداًً صلى الله عليه وسلم { عَلَّمَهُ ٱلبَيَانَ } يعني: بيان ما كان وما يكون

لأنه كان يبين عن الأولين والآخرين وعن يوم الدين

( Sura rahman , ayat 3-4) tafsir baghawi.


Said Ibn Keesan
Khalaqal Insaan He created human, that is MuHammad Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam.

`Allamahul Bayaan
taught him speech that is speech, description of all that hath happened and all that shall come to be.

[Qaal Ibn Keesaan Khalaqal Insaan, Ya`anee MuHammadin Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam `Allamahul Bayaan. Ya`anee Bayaani Maa Kaana Wa Maa Yakuun.]


Wa Nazzalnaa `Alaykal Kitaaba Tibyaanal Likulli Shayy;

And We (Allah) sent down upon thee a book that manifests everything. [Note that Kulli Shayy is general as Allah says, `Ala Kulli Shayyin Qadeer // He has power over all things. The same way the Qur-aan describes EVERYTHING. Wallahu A`alam]


Said Imam Abd al-Wahhab Sha`araani in Kibreet al-AHmar :


And our Shaykh HaDrat `Ali al-KhawwaS RaDiyallahu `Anhu said, I heard from him: A person is not considered as complete (mureed) by us as long as he doesn’t know of his Mureeds from the time of his being transferred as a seed since the time of Alastu (when Allah asked "Am I not thine Rabb?") to the point whether he enters paradise or hell.


[Wa Amma Shaykhunas Sayyidu `Aliyyun al-KhawwaS RaDiyallahu `Anhu Fasami`ytuhu Yaquulu Laa Yakmalur Rajulu `Indana Hatta Ya`alama Harakaati Mureedihi Fee Intiqaalihi Fil ASlaabi Wa Huwa NuTfatun Min Yawmi A Lastu Birabbikum Ilaa Istiqraarihee Fil Jannati Aw Fin Naar]


Said Shaykh al-Jeelani:

NaDHartuu Ilaa Bilaadillahi Jam`an :: Ka Khardalatin `Ala Hukmitti Saali

I see all the cities created by Allah as if I see a small speck of mustard seed on my palm! [ an interesting aside is someone asked how is it that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam could see it as he could see his palm and Shaykh al-Jeeli RaDiyallahu `Anhu could see it as a mustard seed. Our Shaykh replied, THAT under the mustard seed is hidden from Shaykh al-Jeelani, but even that is not hidden from Rasul `Alayhi AfDalus Salaatu Was Salaam]

It is in RuuH al-Bayaan:

And thus his (Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) knowledge encompasses all the (Ba`aD)
Unseen of the skies as has been reported in the Hadeeth.


[ Wa Kadhaa SSaara `Ilmuhu MuHeeTan Bi Jamee`yil Ma`aluumaatil Ghaybiyyatil Malakuutiyyati Kamaa Jaa-a Fee Hadeethi IkhtiSaamil Malaayikah;]


In Khaazin this Hadeeth is by Suddi:


Said Suddi said Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam all the faces of people among my Ummah were presented to me as was presented to HaDrat Aadam `Alayhis Salaam and I was made known of who will be a Muslim and who a Kaafir; when this reached the Munafiqs, they said mocking, MuHammad (Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) speaks of those who are not even created, and we are amongst him, he doesn’t know who is a Muslim amongst us. When Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam heard of it, he stood up on the pulpit and said, " what has become of a nation that speaks ill of my knowledge. You do not ask of what is amongst you now and anything until Judgement day, that I cannot tell you of". And this hadeeth continues with HaDrat `Abdullah ibn Hudhaafah as-Sahamee asking who his father was; Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam replied that his father was Hudaafah; HaDrat `Umar RaDiyallahu `Anhu stood up and said we are pleased with Allah as our Lord and Islam as our Religion Qur-aan as our Imam (book of revelation) and as thee as our Prophet, please forgive us may Allah forgive thee; Said Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Will you stop now? And got down from the pulpit)

I say, our Rasul Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam is telling people of their fathers and you ask of what is in the womb?


[ Qaalas Suddi Qaala Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam `UriDat `Alayya Ummatee fee SSuwarihaa FiT Teeni Kamaa `UriDat `Alaa Aaadama Wa U`ulimtu Man Yu-minu Wa Man Yakfuru Fa Balagha dhaalikal Munaafiqeena Qaaluu Istihzaa-an Za`ama MuHammadun Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Innahu Ya`alamu Man Yu-minu Bihi Wa Man Yakfuru Minmman Yakhluqu Ba`adu Wa NaHnu Ma`ahuu Wa Maa Ya`arifuna; Fa Balagha Dhaalika Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Fa Qaama `Alal Minbari Fa HHamidallaha Wa Athnaa `Alayhi thumma Qaala Maa Baalu Aqwaamin TT`anuu Fee `Ilmee? Laa Tas-aluunee `An Shayyin Feemaa Baynakum wa Baynas Saa`ati Illaa An-ba-atukum Bihee …]

It is in Khaazin

When Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam says that he doesn’t have this `Ilm it is his humility and his recognition of the fact that he is a slave of Allah.


[Innamaa Nafaa `An Nafsihish Shareefati Haadhihil Ashyaa-a TawaaDu`an Lillahi Ta`aalaa Wa I`ytiraafan Lahuu Bil `Ubuudiyyati]

It is in the Fataawa of Imam Nawawi:


Question: What is the meaning of the Aayat, "Nobody knows of what is in the heavens and the earth among the
Unseen except Allah" and its like tho’ it is among the Mu`jiza of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam that he was taught the knowledge of Maa fee Ghadd what will happen tomorrow and among the miracles of Awlia RaDiyallahu `Anhum.


Answer: Its meaning is nobody knows of these things of his own accord, (independently without being taught by Allah) except Allah `Azza Wa Jall. And the miracles of Prophets and Awlia, (it should be known) that it is by Allah teaching them, not of their own.

[Mas-alah: Ma Ma`anaa Qawlillahi Ta`aalaa Laa Ya`alamu Man Fis Samaawaati Wal ArDil Ghayba Illallah Wa Ashbaahu dhaalika Ma`a Annahu Qad `Ulima `Ilma Maa Fee Ghadin Min Mu`jizaatin Nabiyyi `Alayhis Salaatu Was Salaam wa Fee Karaamaatil Awliaa RaDiyallahu `Anhum;

Al-Jawaab: Ma`anaahu Laa Ya`alamu Dhaalika Istiqlaalan Wa Ammal Mu`jizaata Wal Karaamaat Fa HaSalat Bi I`ylaamillahi Laa Istiqlaalan]


In Fataawa al-Hadeethiyyah of HaDrat Ibn Hajar al-Makki:

It means nobody knows of his own accord, the knowledge that encompasses all things except Allah Ta`aalaa (His knowledge is his own, not by anyone’s teaching) But the miracles of Prophets and Awlia then they have it by being taught by Allah.


[Ma`anaahaa Laa Ya`alama dhaalika Istiqlaalan `Ilma IHaaTatan BiKullil Ma`aluumati Illallaha Ta`aalaa Wa Ammal Mu`jizaata Wal Karaamaata Fa Bi I`ylaamillahi Ta`aalaa Lahum HaSalat Wa Kadhaa Maa `Alima Bi Ajzaayil `Aadah]

In Naseem ar-RiyaaD Bi SharHish Shifaa Li QaDi `IyaaD by Imam Shihaabuddeen Khaffaji:


These Aayat which (outwardly mean) that ‘nobody knows’ do not contradict those which mean that ‘Allah gives it to those He wills’; for that which is being negated is that kind of `Ilm which is without any means, and that which is taught by Allah, bestowed by Him then, it is a accepted fact that (it is true) by the Aayat: "Nobody knows of the
Unseen except Allah and He bestows it to whom He Wills among the chosen ones among His messengers"


[Haadhaa Laa Yanaafi al-Ayatad Daallati `Alaa Annahu Laa Ya`alamal Ghayba Illallaha Ta`aalaa Fa Innal Manfee `Ilmuhu Min Ghayri WaaSiTatin Wa Amma ITTIlaa`yihi `Alayhi Bi I`ylaamillahi Ta`aalaa Fa Amrun MutaHaqqiqun Bi Qawlihi Falaa YuDH-hiru `Alaa Ghaybihii AHadaa"]

`Allamah Ibraahiim Bayjuuri in SharaH QaSeedat al-Burdaa says: (HaDrat Ibraheem Bayjuuri has also written a Hashiyah on Jawhara)

"And Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam did not leave this world without his being informed by Allah on (everything including) the five unseen ones."


[Wa Lam Yakhruj Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Minad Dunyaa Illa Ba`ada An A`alamahullahu Ta`aalaa Bi Haadhihil Umuuril Khamsah]


Sharif `Abd al-`Azeez says in his Kitaab al-Ibreez :

I told my Shaykh RaDiyallahu `Anhu that many `Ulama scholars of the Dhaahir (that is fiqh) and MuHadditheen have disagreed upon the fact whether Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam knew of these five things among the unseen or not as Allah says: "It is with him the knowledge of the hour.." Said he (my shaykh) How can it be that such five things are hidden (not known) by Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam and a saint (ahlut TaSarruf) among his Ummah cannot do TaSarruf (do works assigned to them by Allah, various things as the power bestowed upon them by Allah) without these five.


[Qultu Lish Shaykhi RaDiyallahu `Anhu Fa Inna `Ulamaa aDH-DHaahiri Minal MuHadditheena Wa Ghayrihim Ikhtalafuu Fin Nabiyyi Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Hal Kaana Ya`alamul Khamsal Madhkuuraati Fee Qawlihi Ta`aalaa Innallaha `Indahuu `Ilmus Saa`ati (al-Aayah); Faqaala Kayfa Yakhfaa Amrul Khamsi `Alayhi Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Wal WaaHidu Min Ahlit TaSarrufi Min Ummatihish Shareefati Laa Yumkinahut TaSarrufu Illaa Bi Ma`arifati Haadhihil Khams]


31. It is in RuuH al Bayaan under the Aayat:

Yas-aluunaka Ayyana Mursaahaa

They ask thee of when the hour shall come.

Some of our Shaykhs are of the opinion that Nabiyy Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam knew of the hour of Judgement day by being taught/informed by Allah and this doesn’t contradict the other Aayats.



[Qad dhahaba Ba`aDal Mashaayikhi Ilaa Annan Nabiyyi Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Kaana Ya`arifu Waqtas Saa`ati Bi I`ylaamillahi Ta`aalaa Wa Huwaa Laa Yanaafiyal HaSru Fil Aayati Kamaa Laa Yakhfaa]


32. FutuuHaat Wahbiyyah SharH Arba`een an-Nawawiyyah by Ibn `ATiyyah:

If someone says Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam said " I and the hour (of judgement) were sent in this manner (and Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam showed two fingers side by side); this is a proof that he was given the knowledge of (when it would come to pass); And the Aayat seems contrary to this that means that only Allah `Azza Wa Jall alone knows of it ---- the answer is which Haleemi said: that it means that I am the last prophet and no one shall come after me, and only the Judgement day shall come after me. But the truth of the matter is as held by a group that Allah, Glory be to the Exalted Lord, did not take away our Nabiy (Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) from this world before he informed him of all these things and the like that were (previously) hidden from him; Yet, he was commanded to speak out on some and keep secret of some other things.



[Fa In Qeela Qawlihi Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Bu`yithtu Ana Was Saa`atu Ka Haatayni Yadullu `Ala Anna `Indahuu Minhaa `Ilman Wal Aayaatu TaqtaDaa Annallaaha Mutafarridun Bi `Ilmihaa Fal Jawaabu Kamaa Qaalal Haleemee Anna Ma`anaahu Annan Nabiyyal Aakhiru Falaa Yalaynee Nabiiyn Aakharu Wa Innamaa Talayniyal Qiyaamatu Wal Haqqu Kamaa Qaala Jam`u Annallaha SubHaanahu Wa Ta`aalaa Lam YaqbiDa Nabiyyinaa `Alayhis Salaatu Was Salaam Hatta ATTala`ahuu `Ala Kulli Maa Ab-hamahuu `Anhu Illaa `Annahuu Amarahuu Bi Katami Ba`aDin Wal I`ylaami Bi Ba`aD]


33. Mirqaat SharH Mishkaat by `Ali al-Qari :

Wa Innamaa Mana`al Qaayilati Bi Qawlihaa Waffayan Nabiyyin:

Regarding the meaning of the Hadeeth when a small girl was disallowed by Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam to say ‘we have with us our Rasul Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam who knows of what is tomorrow’.

It is because of the unpleasantness that he was mentioned as he who knows unseen other than Allah. And yet, the Rasul knows of the unseen all that is informed/taught by Allah.
Or the reason (for the Rasul to ask the girl to say something else) is because of the unpleasantness of the situation in which the Prophet `Alayhis Salaam was mentioned while playing a musical instrument and among an elegy because Rasul `Alayhis Salaam is exalted in rank (he should be accorded due respect).


[Li Karaahati Nisbati `Ilmil Ghaybi Ilayhi Li Annahu Laa Ya`alamul Ghayba Illallaha Wa Innamaa Ya`alamur Rasuulu Minal Ghaybi Maa A`alamahu Awil Karaahati An Yudhkira Fee Athnaayi DDarbid Daffi Wa Athnaayi Marthiyatinil Qatlaa Li `Uluwwi ManSabihi `An Dhaalik]


34. In SharaH al-MaqaaSid by `Allama Taftaazaani :

Here it is not general but specific about the Hour when the Judgement day shall be ordained and it is not far fetched (that is it is not wrong) that Allah `Azza Wa Jall informed of this to His messengers among the men and the Angels.


[Innal Ghayba Haa Hunaa Laysa `Alal `Amuumi Bal MuTlaqun Aw Mu`ayyinun Huwa Waqti Wuquu`yil Qiyaamati Bi Qareenatis Siyaaqi Wa Laa Yab`adu An YuTTali`u `Alayhi Ba`aDar Rasuuli Minal Malaa-yikati Wal Bashar]


35. In Mishkaat HaDrat Ibn Mas`uud RaDiyallahu `Anhu reports:

And then (while the child is in the mother’s womb) Allah will send an Angel with four Words to be written: And the angel writes what all he does, and when (where) he dies, and his food (to be generic all that he earns) and whether he is a blessed one or an accursed one.


[Thumma Yab`athullahu Malakan Bi Arba`yi Kalimaatin Fa Yaktubu `Amaluhuu Wa Ajaluhuu Wa Rizquhuu Wa Shaqiyyun Aw Sa`eed]

36. Then there is the very famous quote of Imam Jalaluddin SuyuuTi in Taareekh al-Khulafaa where HaDrat Siddiq RaDiyallahu `Anhu gave news of Maa Fil ArHaam. I will skip it, for it is well known and our friend himself has documented it.

37. `Allama Dameeri in Hayaat al-Haywaan.


This is the event in which a villager came to Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam and told him that if he was a true prophet if he could tell him what was in the womb of his she-camel. At that time HaDrat Salamah ibn Salaamah who was yet a small kid said, "don’t ask Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam about it. Ask me, I will tell you. There is in it (the womb) the proof of an indecent act you have done. Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam asked him to keep quiet.
SubHaanallah! A small boy, in the presence of Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam is giving you the knowledge of Maa fil ArHaam, how about his master!! Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam.


[In Kunta Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam fakhbirnee `Amma fee BaTni Naaqati Haadhihee; Fa Qaala Lahu Salamah ibn Salaamah ibn Waqsh Wa Kaana Ghulaaman Haddathan; Laa Tas-al Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Wa Aqbil `Alayya Fa ANa Akhbiruka `An Dhaalik. Nazawtu `Alayhaa Fa Fee BaTnihaa Sakhlatun Minka…]

38. In at:Mishkat

Said HaDrat `Umar RaDiyallahu `Anhu Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam used to show us the places in Badr a day before and marked it with a stick. He said this is the place (of death) of such and such a person tomorrow Insha Allah. This is the place (of death) of such and such a person tomorrow Inshaa Allah. Said HaDrat `Umar RaDiyallahu `Anhu I swear by He who hath sent him with truth (as a true prophet) none of the persons mentioned were out of the lines drawn by Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam a day before.

This Hadeeth is originally from Bukhari, and in it is the knowledge of Bi Ayyi ArDin Tamuut.


[Qaala `Umar Inna Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Kaana Yureenaa MuSaari`in Ahlal Badri Bil Amsi Yaquulu Haadhaa MuSra`yi Fulaanan Ghadan, Inshaa Allah. Wa Haadhaa MuSrayi Fulaanan Ghadan Inshaa Allah; Qaala `Umar Walladhee Ba`athahuu Bil Haqqi Ma Akhtaul Huduudullatee Haddahaa Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam …]


39. Said HaDrat Hassaan RaDiyallahu `Anhu as written in Zarqaani `alal Mawaahib:


Nabiyyun Yaraa Maa Laa Yaran Naasu Hawlahuu

Wa Yatluu Kitaaballahi Fee Kulli Mash-hadin

Fa In Qaala Fee Yawmin Maqaalata Ghaayibin
Fa TaSdeequhaa Fee DDaHwatil Yawmi Aw Ghadin

40. In Tabarani al-Kabeer:


It is reported from ibn `Umar RaDiyallahu `Anhumaa that he said: Said Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam that HaDrat Husayn RaDiyallahu `Anhu will be martyred in the beginning of the sixtieth year after my Hijirah


[`An Ibn `Umar RaDiyallahu `Anhumaa Qaala Qaala Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Yuqtalul Husaynu `Ala Ra-asi Sitteena Sanatin Min Muhaajiri]

41. In Sawi `alal Jalaalayn under the Aayat:


Yas-aluunaka `Anis Saa`ah

They ask thee of the Hour (of Judgement)


Verily it is the time of questioning and our Prophet Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam did not leave this world until Allah `Azza Wa Jall had informed him of all the
unseen (knowledge of the creation) and among it is the knowledge of the Hour.


[Innamaa Huwa Waqtus Su-aali Wa Illa Fa Lam Yakhruj Nabiyyina Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Hatta ATTal`ahullahu `Alaa Jamee`yil Mughayyibaati Wa Min Jumlatihaa As-Saa`ah]

42. In the same SSaawi under the Aayat:

Yas-aluunaka `Anis Saa`ati Ayyana Mursaahaa:

They ask thee of the Hour (of judgement) as to when it shall come to pass.


This aayat is before Allah informed him `Alayhis Salaam of the hour. This doesn’t contradict the fact that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam did not leave this world until Allah informed him of all the things among the
unseen whether from this world or the hereafter.


[Wa Haadha Qabla I`ylaamihi Bi Waqtihaa Falaa Yunaafee Annahu `Alayhis Salaam Lam Yakhrujid Dunyaa Hatta A`alamahullahu Bi Jamee`yi Mughayyibaatid Dunyaa Wal Aakhirah]

43. It is in RuuH al Bayaan:


Our Shuyuukh are of the opinion that our Prophet Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam knew of the hour by the bestowing of Allah `Azza Wa Jall and this doesn’t contradict the Aayats.


[Qad Dhahabal Mashaayiqu Ilaa Annan Nabiyya `Alayhis Salaam Kaana Ya`arifu Waqtas Saa`ati Bi I`ylaamillahi Wa Huwa Laa Yunaafiyal HaSra Fil Aayah]

44. It is in RuH al Bayan under:

Ilayhi Yuraddu `Ilmus Saa`ah

Towards He (Allah) is the knowledge of the Hour (of Judgement)


The meaning of this is that nobody else knows on his own; and this doesn’t contradict the fact that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam did not leave this world until he was given the knowledge of what all happened and what all is to happen and amongst these is the knowledge of the hour.


[Al Ma`anaa Laa Yufeedu `Ilmahu Ghayrahuu Ta`aalaa Falaa Yanaafee Anna Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Lam Yakhruj Minad Dunyaa Hattaa `UTliya Maa Kaana Wa Maa Yakuunu Wa Maa Huwa Kaayinun Wa Min Jumlatihee `Ilmus Saa`ah]

45. Saawi on Jalaalayn under:


Maa dhaa Taksibu Ghadaa
says:

Which means nobody knows it by his own self except Allah and that which is by his teaching his slaves doesn’t oppose the aforesaid meaning as he does bestow it on his Prophets and many among His Awlia as is evident from the Aayat: "Nobody can gauge (anything) from His knowledge excepting those whom He wills (to give)" and said He: "He doesn’t let know of the
Unseen to anyone excepting those among His chosen ones among the Messengers" And neither does it negate that many of his pious slaves also knew among the unseen; so it is a miracle of a Prophet or a Wali to have attained that knowledge. Therefore the `Ulama of Haqq [Definitely not Deobandis] the True Scholars have said that our Prophet Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam did not leave this world until Allah had informed him of these five things, the `Uluum al-Khams.


[Ayyi Min Haythu Dhaatihaa Wa Amma Bi I`ylaamillahi Lil `Abdi Falaa Maani`a Minhu Kal Anbiyaai wa Ba`Dil Awliaa-I Qaala Ta`aalaa Wa Laa YuHeetuuna Bi Shayyin Min `Ilmihi Illa Bimaa Shaa-a Qaala Ta`aalaa Falaa YuDH-hiru `Alaa Ghaybihii AHadaa; Illa ManirtaDaa Minar Rasuul; Falaa Maani`ya Min Kawnillahi YuTli`u Ba`aDa `IbaadihiS Saliheena `Alaa Ba`aDil Mughayyibaati Fa Takuunu Mu`ujizatan Lin Nabiyyi wa Karaamatan Lil Waliyyi Wa Lidhaalika Qaalal `Ulamaa al-Haqqu Annahuu Lam Yakhruj Nabiyyunaa Minad Dunyaa Hatta ATTala`ahuu `Alaa tilkal Khams]

46. Irshaad as-Saari Imam Qastalani :

Nobody knows when the Judgement day is ordained (the Hour) except Allah or those amongst the Messenger Allah has chosen (and given them such knowledge) for He has informed them of this and also the Awlia who are his (the prophet’s followers) who take this knowledge from him (the prophet `Alayhis Salaam)


[Laa Ya`alamu Mataa Taquumus Saa`atu Illallahu Wa Illa ManirtaDaa Minar Rasuuli Fa Innahuu YuTli`ahu `Alaa Ghaybihii Wal Waliyyut Taabi`u Lahuu Ya-khudhu `Anhu]


47. A hadeeth in Mishkaat which says that Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam brought two books one day and said that these books contain the names of those in heaven and those in hell.

48. Says Jalaluddin SuyuuTi In KhaSaayis al-Kubraa:


It was presented to him (Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) all that was to happen till Judgement day among his Ummah.


[`UriDa `Alayhi Maa Huwa Kaayinun Fee Ummatihi Hatta Taquumus Saa`ah]


50. Says he in KhaSaayis al-Kubraa:

Amongst the scholars are of the opinion that he Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam was given the five Uluum al-Khams too and the knowledge of the hour and the knowledge of RuuH, the Soul but he was commanded to hide these things.


[Dhahaba Ba`aDahum Ilaa Annahu Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam Uutiya `Ilmul Khamsi AyDan Wa `Ilmus Sa`ati War RuuHi Wa Annahu Umira Bi Katami dhaalika]

51. Imam Busayri:

Wasi`al `Aalameena `Ilmanw Wa Hikmaa

Fa Huwa BaHrun Lam Ta`eehal A`abaa-u

His (Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) knowledge and wisdom is so vast // that it is like a sea of which nobody can gauge the depth.

52. Said Ibn Hajar al-Makki in SharaH of this verse:

That is Allah `Azza Wa Jall taught/informed him (Rasulallah Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam) of all that is in the worlds so much that he possessed the knowledge of those that were before and those that came after. And that which happened and that which shall happen.


"Li Annallaha Ta`aalaa ATTala`ahuu `Alal `Aalami Fa `Alimal Awwaleena Wal Aakhareena Wa Maa Kaana Wa Maa Yakuun"

There are other passages too from `Araayis al-Bayaan and from Tafseer al-Kabeer by Imam Raazi; from IHyaa by Imam al-Ghazzali; from Madaarik by Imam Haakim; Tafseer Nishaapuri; and many others. I have restricted myself to these few.

Wallahu A`alam, Wa `Ilmuhu Atam Wa AHkam

A subtle note by A`ala HaDrat Imam AHmed RiDa:
Allah has mentioned in the Qur-aan:
Wa `Indahuu MafaatiHul Ghayb

And with He (Allah) are the keys of the
Unseen.

Lahuu Maqaaleedus Samaawaati Wal ArD

And with He (Allah) are the keys of the Heavens and the earths.

Now in the first Aayat MafateeH is used and in the second Maqaaleed is used; both mean keys. But just look, take the first & last letter of MafateeH You have Meem and HHaa; take the first & last letters of Maqaaleed you have Meem and Daal. Add them and you have MuHammad! Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam.

أراد بالإنسان محمداً صلى الله عليه وسلم علَّمه البيان يعني بيان ما يكون وما كان لأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم ينبىء عن خبر الأولين والآخرين وعن يوم الدين،

(Sura Rahman, verse 3-4, Tafsir Khazin)

"Insan (man) here means mohammed ( sal allahu alayhi wa sallam) and he was given the knowledge of what happened and what will happen. The prophet ( sal allahu alayhi wa sallam) gives the news of first and the last and about the final day."

'Allama Sulayman al-Jamal says in his supercommentary on Tafsir al-Jalalayn entitled al-Futuhat al-Ilahiyya:

By Sulayman b. ’Umar al-’Ujayli al-Azhari (d. 1205 H/1790 )

Insan (man) here means mohammed ( sal allahu alayhi wa sallam) and he was given the knowledge of what happened and what will happen. The prophet ( sal allahu alayhi wa sallam) gives the news of first and the last and about the final day.

AlHamdulillah Atmamtu Bi Idhnihi Haadha Ahmul FuSuul; Wa Rattabtuhu Bi Awthaqin Nuquul; Wa Sammaytuhu Tabsheer al-`Aquul Wa Tanbeeh al-Ghafuul Fee SharHi Wus`ati `Ilmir Rasuul; Wa Rajawtu bi Rabbiyallahu Ahsan al-Qubuul.



Wa Sallallahu `Alaa Sayyidil Asyaad wa `Alaa Aalihil Amjaad; was Salaamu `Alayhi bighayri Hadd; `Ala liman A`aTaahu Allahu Ilma Maa fee Ghadd; Wa `Alaa Aalihi Wa SaHbihi Ajma`yeen Hum Atbaa`ahuu wa Ahlul Yaqeen. Wa `Alaynaa Ma`ahum Insha Allah ilaa Yawmid Deen. Aameen. Bi Jaahin Nabiyyil Ameen.



Al Faqeeru Ila Allah Ar Rajee Bi RaHmatillah

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Suggested Reading:

1. Ad-Dawlatu'l Makkiyah bi'l Maddati'l Ghaybiyyah :Imam Ahmed Raza Khan [ Rh]

2. Radd e Shihabuth Thaqib : Mufti Azmal Shah [ Rh]

3. Eighty Hadith on the Prophetic Knowledge of the unseen : Shaykh GF Haddad

4. Qam' al Ashrar an Jarimat al intihar : Shaykh Abdullah Ghumari

5. Ikhtiyar al Awla fi sharhi hadith iktisam al -mala' al A-la' : Imam Ibn Rajab al Hanbali [ Rh]